Getting Started:
Make math and science easier (and more fun) with free graphing calculator programs and games from calculatorti.com. You can make the process of transfering the application to your calculator sweet and simple with Texas Instrument's handy TI connect software. Install it on your computer and grab your GraphLink Connection cable (USB cable) to plug in your calculator. Then you can start downloading any of our programs and games (Wow! There's a lot!) from our libraries to transfer and install them to your calculator. Have fun!Title:  Brief Desc.  Brief Description:  Req.  Requirements:  Category: 

Surface Area of a Revolution  X Axis  TI89 graphing calculator program, finds the surface area of a revolution around the x axis. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Function Length  TI89 graphing calculator program finds the length of a function between 2 points. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Event Probability  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating even probability. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Statistics ] 

Equation of an Antiderivative  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Finds the equation of an antiderivative. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Root Approximation: Newton's Method  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Uses Newton's method of approximation to find the roots of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Symbolic Integration  TI89 graphing calculator program for symbolic integration. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Conic Parabola  TI89 graphing calculator conic parabola program. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Graphing Histograms  TI89 graphing calculator program for graphing histograms 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Graphing ] 

Algebra, Geometry and Trig Program  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator algebra 2, geometry and trig program. conics, cosine, greatest common factor, Pascal's triangle and more. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Variable Substitution  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for variable subistitution. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Derivative of a Parametric Function  TI89 graphing calculator program calculates the derivative of a parametric function 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Benford's Law  TI89 graphing calculator program for analyzing data using Benford's Law 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Statistics ] 

Divide and Factor Cubic Equations  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for division and factoring of cubic equations. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Solving Systems of Linear Inequalities: Combination Method  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for solving systems of inequalities. Uses the combination method. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

4th Degree Quadratic Solve  TI89 graphing calculator program for solving 4th degree quadratics. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Euler's Method: Differential Equations  TI89 graphing calculator program solves differential equations using Euler's Method. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Factor Polynomials  TI89 graphing calculator program for factoring polynomials. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Integration Formulas  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program contains formulas used for calculating integrals. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Inverse Laplace Transformation  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating Inverse Laplace Transformation of a function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Point of Inflection of a Function  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program calculates the point of inflection of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Analyze and Graph Rational Functions  TI89 graphing calculator program for analyzing and graphing rational functions. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Volume and Rotation of a Solid  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating the volume and rotation of a solid. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Statistical Inventory Methods  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating statistical inventory methods. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Statistics ] 

Continuity and Differentiability of a Function  TI89 graphing calculator program for determining the continuity and differentiability of a Function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

The Euler Method: Solving Differential Equations  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program uses the Euler method approximate the solutions of firstorder differential equations. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Geometric Area and Volume  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating geometric area and volume of solids and polygons. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Depreciation, Ratio, and List Functions  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the depreciation function, ratio function and list function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ BusinessFinance ] 

Equation of a Parabola  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for finding the equation of a parabola given 3 points. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Simultaneous Nonlinear Differential Equations: Heun's Method  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Uses Heun's method to solve simultaneous nonlinear differential equations. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Euler's Theorem  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program solves for variables in Euler's theorem. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Monthly or Periodic Payment Calculator  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating monthly or periodic payments. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ BusinessFinance ] 

Cauchy Riemann Equations  TI89 graphing calculator Cauchy Riemann theorem program. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Algebra for High School Middle School and Jr. High Students  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator Algebra program for Jr. High and Middle School Students. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Trapezoidal Rule: Area Under a Series of Points  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Calculates the area under a series of points on a graph using the trapezoidal rule. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Linear Approximation of a Function: Tangent Line  TI89 graphing calculator program, calculates the linear approximation of a function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Integrals: Area Under a Curve, Area Between 2 Curves  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating the area under a curve and the area between 2 curves. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Area of a Regular Polygon  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the area of a regular polygon. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Calculus Collection  TI89 graphing calculator program includes more than 20 different calculus functions. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Area Under the Curve of a Function: Monte Carlo Method  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for finding the area under the curve of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Factoring  Multiplying Monomials  Prime Factorization  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for factoring and multiplying polynomials, trinomials, and cubic functions. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Symbolic Differentiation and MacLaurin Polynomials  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for symbolic differentiation and calculations on Maclaurin polynomials. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Fast Exponentiation Algorithms  TI89 graphing calculator fast exponentiation algorithms program. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Derivative Approximation with Secant Line Slope  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Compares the secant line slope of a function to its derivative. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

One Price Rule  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the One Price Rule. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ BusinessFinance ] 

Geometry Notes: Formulas  TI89 graphing calculator program contains geometry formulas and notes. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Riemann Sums and Definite Integral of a Function  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating Riemann sums and the definite integral of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Equation Points of Intersection  TI89 graphing calculator program for finding the points of intersection of two linear equations. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Equation of a Circle  TI89 graphing calculator program for converting the equation of a circle between forms. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Iterations of a Function  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating the itterations of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Fourier Theory  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Explores Fourier Theory by creating complex waveforms using ten different frequencies. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Price Index  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating price index. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ BusinessFinance ] 

Decay Functions  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for solving decay functions. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

NonImplicit Differentiation  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator nonimplicit differentiation program. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Cramer's Rule: Matrices  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program uses Cramer's Rule to solve systems of equations. Solutions are expressed in matrix form. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Triangles: Sine and Cosine  TI89 graphing calculator program, calculates angle degrees and length of the sides of a triangle using the laws of sine and cosine. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Trigonometry ] 

Solve First Derivative  TI89 graphing calculator program, solves the first derivative of a function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Trapezoidal Rule  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for approximating the region under the graph of a function using the trapezoidal rule. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Complex Roots of Complex Numbers  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating complex roots of complex numbers. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

The Method of Least Squares  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the method of least squares. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Statistics ] 

Trapezoidal Rule: Approximate Finite Integrals  TI89 graphing calculator trapezoidal rule program for approximating finite integrals. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Geometry Notes: Properties of a Circle  TI89 graphing calculator program contains notes on properties of a circle. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Basic Integrals  TI89 graphing calculator program lists some basic and common calculus integrals. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

MultiVariable Calculus Program  TI89 graphing calculator program solves several multivariable calculus problems. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Inflation Rate  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating inflation rate. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ BusinessFinance ] 

Hurwitz Zeta Function  TI89 graphing calculator program. Performs opperations related to the Hurwitz Zeta Function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Slope Fields  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator slope fields program. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Common Calculus Methods and Functions  TI89 graphing calculator program for finding zeros in a function, interpolation, and integration using several different methods. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Sum or Difference between 2 Cubes  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating sums and differences of cubes. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Calculus Programs and Notes  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program set. Contains calculus notes and several useful calculus programs. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Zeta Function  TI89 graphing calculator Zeta function program. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Linear Interpolation Function  TI89 graphing calculator linear interpolation program. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Calculus Formulas  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program contains common calculus formulas. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Everything Calculus Program  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Includes many useful calculus features and functions. A very good program. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Secant Method: Roots of an Equation  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program finds the roots of an equation Using the secant method. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Algebra 2 Solver  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator Program for solving many common algebra II problems. Includes equation and quadratic solvers. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Area Under a Curve  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the area under a curve. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Cube solver  TI89 graphing calculator program for solving cubic equations. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Parabola intercepts plus  TI89 graphing calculator program for finding the intercepts of a parabola. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Pade Approximants  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program uses Pad? approximant to find the best approximation of a function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Implicit Equations  Iterative Method  TI89 graphing calculator program for solving Implicit Equations. Uses an Iterative Method 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Manipulating Functions  TI89 graphing calculator program for manipulating the graph of a function based on a changing variable. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Graphing ] 

Integrals: Rectangle Approximation Methods and Trapezoid Method  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Estimates the integral of a function using the rectangle and trapezoid methods. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Center of Mass of a Solid  TI89 graphing calculator program, calculates the center of mass of a solid. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Integration Sums: Area Under a Curve  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program. Calculates integration sums used for approximating area under a curve. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

3 Dimensional Function Converter  TI89 graphing calculator program for converting 3d functions. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Algebra ] 

Calculus Program 89  TI89 graphing calculator calculus program for calculating the equations of lines, average rate of change, difference quotient, and tangent lines 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Extremum of 2 a variable function  TI89 graphing calculator program, finds the Extremum of a 2 variable function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Geometry Basics  TI89 graphing calculator program for basic geometry problems. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

High School Algebra Formula Calculator: Teacher Edition  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for high school algebra students and teachers. Calculates 30 common algebra, geometry and trigonometry formulas. Teachers can ... 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Solving Triangles  TI89 graphing calculator program for solving triangles. Gives a complete solutions including area, angles, inscribed circle and more. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Trigonometry ] 

Algebra Help  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator Algebra help program for students in intermediate algebra courses. Contains multiple useful algebra functions. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Surface Area of a Revolution  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating the surface area of revolution 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Parametric Curve Analysis  TI89 graphing calculator program for analysis of parametric curves. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Rectangle Approximations  TI89 graphing calculator program, calculates rectangle area approximations. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Area of a Triangle  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the area of a triangle. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Geometry ] 

Centroid Program  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the centroid of a function. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 

Curved Data Analysis: Power and Regression  TI89 graphing calculator program for analyzing statistical curve data. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Statistics ] 

Recursive Functions  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for evaluating recursive functions. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Algebra ] 

Arc Length and Surface Area of a Function  TI84 Plus and TI83 Plus graphing calculator program for calculating the Arc Length and Surface Area of Rotation of a Function. 
Requires the ti83 plus or a ti84 model.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti83/ti84 ] [ Calculus ] 

Steepest Ascent Path  TI89 graphing calculator program for calculating the steepest ascent path. 
Requires the ti89 calculator.
(Click here for an explanation)

[ Programs ] [ ti89 ] [ Calculus ] 